By “Category” I am referring to the main advertising categories in the realm of consumerism. To introduce each of the areas I have supplied a fab definition from my favourite textbook Advertising: Principles & Practices. The focus will be on the following advertising categories:
BUSINESS TO BUSINESS.
NOT FOR PROFIT.
For each category (and to link this all back to the one and only, advertising) I have supplied a definition or two that assist in understanding what each category is all about! Because examples are the only way I learn (and I’m guessing you too) I have also provided a few advertising examples that fall under each category with one annotation per category. Just to add some academics to the mix, I have linked in a relevant peer reviewed journal article to each category.
Brand = “is a mixture of tangible and intangible attributes captured and recognised in a trademark which, if managed properly, creates value” ( Wells et al. 2011 p. 458.)
Brand Advertising = “Advertising that creates and sustains the long-term value and influence of a brand’s special meaning properly, creates value” ( Wells et al. 2011 p. 458.)
Example 1 – Nike “Just do it.”
Advertising Agency: Wieden & Kennedy
Nike is so well known for its incredible brand management. The story goes like this, according to the Centre for Applied Research, “Dan Weiden, [spoke] admiringly of Nike’s can-do attitude, [and] reportedly said, “You Nike guys, you just do it.” The rest, as they say, is (advertising) history” (Nike’s “Just Do It” Advertising Campaign). This particular advertising campaign in 1988 allowed Nike to expand and dominate the sporting goods market. Having a strong brand image permitted Nike to command higher prices leading to a larger revenue and in turn the creation of a competitive advantage against other main players (Reebok) in the sporting goods market (Nike’s “Just Do It” Advertising Campaign).
Example 2 – Myer “is my store” brand campaign
Advertising Agency: Ogilvy Australia, NSW
Example 4 – Big W “Live big for less” brand campaign
Advertising Agency: Ideaworks, Australian retail marketing specialist
Example 5 – Subway “Eat Fresh” Brand campaign
Advertising Agency: McCann, London
Creative Directors: Matt Crabtree & Simon Hepton
Trade Press Article:
The above trade press article Broadcaster, Canada’s Communication Magazine describes the brand partnership campaign between Canadian brand CTV and American reality series X Factor (CTV and TD Bank Announce Brand Partnership 2012). This brand partnership allows for a stronger campaign as each brand brings a different offering that works hand-in-hand with the other. You could say the brand offerings are complimentary products, not allowing for a stronger campaign but a more effective overall offering concreting a unique selling proposition as opposed to perhaps other entertainment television reality series featured on opposing networks.
The journal article used for this category is titled Brand Advertising as creative publicity, and is taken from the Journal of Advertising Research. The article puts a heavy importance on brands needing to acquire “broad salience” in a competitive market (Eherenberg et al. 2002). In order to obtain a competitive advantage as well as this “broad salience”, brands use ‘brand advertising’ to gain brand awareness, market share, positive brand associations and an overall strong “persuasive selling proposition” in a competitive market (Eherenberg et al. 2002).
Retail advertising = “A type of advertising used by local merchants who sell directly to consumers” ( Wells et al. 2011 p. 472.)
Example 1 – Coles catalogue advertisement
My understanding of the objectives of retail advertising is to merely communicate the brands offerings efficiently and effectively to local consumers to ensure monetary return. My looking at this Coles catalogue advertisement, upon viewing the front page, I am aware that it is an ad for the brand ‘Coles’, I am aware that the brand is holding sales promotions on items across a wide range of categories and if I look closely on the bottom I can read the address of my closest Coles outlet. I would deem this ad effective because of its clear communication of what I would want from a piece of supermarket retail advertising as a consumer.
Example 2 – KFC Coupon
Example 3 – Target Toy Sale
Example 4: Fuel offer
Trade Press Article:
The above trade press article discusses the forecasted heightened spend on local retail advertising set to “exceed $26.8 billion” in the United States of America (BIA/Kelsey 2012). The internet age and online shopping epidemic has seen a “migration to digital media” for many retail businesses, for those that have stayed alive in the downfall of the current retail sector (BIA/Kelsey 2012). The article quotes Mark Fratrik, vice president and chief economist of BIA/Kelsey who states that “within the online segment, video display is seeing some of the greatest gains, with the top five business categories expected to account for an increase of $232 million in local spending [in the USA] in 2013 alone” (BIA/Kelsey 2012). Even though the online segment is gaining in terms of market share and revenue, there is still a need for retail advertising.
The journal article used for this category is titled Estimating the readership of retail newspaper advertising, and is taken from the Journal of Retailing. The article delves into newspaper display ad readership and the dependant advertising variables that effect that take effect (Soley & James). “Retail sales category, newspaper section placement and [the] size of advertising” are all prominent areas in retail advertising and according to this article have an effect in newspaper display ad readership, and so the article provides insight and assistance when making decisions and plans for retail advertising regarding the mentioned key areas (Soley & James).
Direct-response advertising = “A type of marketing communication that achieves an action-oriented objective as a result of the advertising message” ( Wells et al. 2011 p. 462.)
Example 1 – Foxtel subscription
Example 2 – Hilton Honours Rewards email sent to me on August 6 about discounted holiday options
To my understanding direct-response advertising is exactly that, advertising that induces a direct-response! Above is a screen shot of my email account where I receive hundreds (slight exaggeration, but you get the point, I get alot!) of direct-response advertising each day as a result of direct marketing. I am a sucker for giving my details (email address) to websites in order to become a member (with no benefits whatsoever) which leaves me with an inbox full of direct-response advertising. However, it is an exceptionally valuable advertising tool, and 9 times of 10 (after whinging about it to you for a solid amount of time) I click on the link and go straight to the page that the brand wants to direct me to (the action-oriented objective complete). Sucked in! The advertising examples used in this category illustrate advertisements with a direct link to the advertising objective, whether it’s a Danoz Direct pop up ad or an email it is there to initiate a response whist giving you the resources to action that response.
Example 3 – Danoz Direct advertisement
Trade Press Article:
The above trade press article discusses the once previous use of direct response marketing and advertising by retailers is set to dip (Friedman 2012). The category is used (currently) as an advertising technique for brands because of its interactive nature. The internet age has allowed easy use for direct response advertising, as I mention earlier in my above annotation on Example 2 (email received from Hilton Rewards). However such print media product categories like newspapers and local magazines are already seeing a dip in readership, so it is only understandable that a cut to the advertising budget =, in particular a cut to direct response advertising that is in order (Friedman 2012).
The journal article used for this category is titled Direct response advertising as an element in the promotional mix, and is taken from the Journal of Direct Marketing. This article articulates the positioning of direct response advertising as a “separate promotional mix element” away from the usual generalisation, that being it is either classified as advertising or selling (Self et al. 1987). It delves further into the possible sub-classifications of direct response advertising “based in the major direct response advertising media” vehicles (Self et al. 1987). However it is important to keep in mind that although this journal article suggests direct response advertising is to be set a part from the generalised “advertising” and “selling”, it was written in 1987 and at that time was seen to be rather groundbreaking in terms classifying particular advertising categories (Self et al. 1987).
BUSINESS TO BUSINESS.
Business-to-business advertising = simply “advertising that targets other businesses” ( Wells et al. 2011 p. 489.)
Example 1 – Vancouver Convention Centre
Business to Business advertising is pretty straight forward, as it is literally advertising that specifically targets other businesses. With that in mind, it has a specific target audience and so keeps to that small market. Upon research for this category I found large amounts of print media advertisements that used similar conservative colours, bold but not offensive copy as well as simple but effective tagline’s and copy. I found this to be a common theme across B2B advertising simply because of the target audience and the product offering. The above advertisement depicts exactly that, a conservative business-like setting with bold but not shocking copy that is clear, clever and concise, keeping to cool conservative colour tones in a calm manner.
Example 2 – Epcor
Example 3 – Beechcraft King Air 350
Trade Press Article:
I found the above trade press article interesting and relevant to this category because of its description of opposing social media platforms Facebook and Twitter in a ‘which to choose’ battle for companies seeking online advertising space. Twitter is currently falling behind, when comparing the two based on customer database specifics (Edwards 2012). Edwards writes “Advertisers on Facebook can easily target people by location, gender or education. But Twitter advertisers must guess who users are or what they’re interested in” (Edwards 2012). With the new Twitter “Interest targeting ad product” roll out, the objective is aimed at rectifying current generalised customer profiles in the business’ database, whilst also improving advertising performance (Edwards 2012). The test will be the strong business to business advertising needed to convince advertisers looking for online media space on social media platforms, that Twitter has can illustrate defined customer profiles and make for a more worthy media space than Facebook.
The journal article used for this category is titled Evaluating Business-to-business advertising: a comparison of objectives and results, and is taken from the Journal of Advertising Research. The article explains the growing importance of B2B advertising in 1988, putting it down to the newly directed attention to this advertising category. Other factors to the expansion of B2B advertising in terms of both use and awareness include “a growing managerial sophistication, a broader understanding of the industrial buyer, an increasing number of media and programming options, extended product benefits and attention to differential advantages, and the development of worldwide markets” (Hartley & Patti 1988). At this stage of advertising development (in 1988) personal selling was particularly prominent as a chosen advertising method, however competition in the business environment was growing and impacting on the need for B2B advertising as explored further in the journal article.
Not-for-profit advertising = “Advertising produced for a not-for-profit organisation [that is] produced at lower or minimal fees for the advertiser by advertising agencies, their suppliers and the media players, who often donate the necessary space and time” ( Wells et al. 2011 p. 469.)
Example 1 – National Gallery of Victoria
Not-for-profit advertising is the social side of advertising that doesn’t necessarily have a profit focus, but has a focus on social awareness and the notion to support the cause. The NGV – Metcard collaboration was always something that I was a part of as I would buy a new train ticket every month in year 12 (when I saw a substantial amount of NGV advertising on Metcards) and see a new NGV campaign quite often. I actually took my Metcard into the Salvador Dali exhibition to receive a discount upon entry! Basically it is the “good” side to advertisers (that I think some people believe does not exist), the side that puts money to the back of the mind and social benefit to the forefront, as the definition explains, the work by the agency and the space/air provided by the media players is either donated or heavily discounted for this greater good.
Example 2 – Guide Dogs Australia
Example 3: Salvation Army
Trade press article:
The above trade press article taken from The Independent illustrates the confusion between a not-for-profit organisation and a social enterprise also known as a “social purpose company” (Clarke 2012). Although they seem similar, a social enterprise is an enterprise with the objective to make a sustainable income to put back into the community continuously where a not-for-profit organisation does not generate profits. Advertising used as a communication tool for both of these business types is useful and effective however a social enterprise will have to pay full rates for advertising agencies and media time/space, where a not-for-profit organisation will receive a discounted or donated rate.
The journal article used for this category is titled How do not-for-profit SMEs attempt to develop a strong brand in an increasingly saturated market?, and is taken from the Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. The study delves into the role of branding “within small to medium-sized not-for-profit organisations that are not part of the charity or voluntary sector” (Khan & Ede 2009). The findings of the study strengthen the notion of not-for-profit advertising as it eludes partnerships and companies working together (in this case, advertising agency, media space and not-for-profit organisation) “were found to be exceptionally valuable in helping the organisations establish “a name” as well as raising awareness” (Khan & Ede 2009).
International Advertising = “Advertising designed to promote the same product in a number of countries” ( Wells et al. 2011 p. 466.)
Example 1 – Brazil global advertising campaign 2012
Example 2 – ‘Best job in the world’
Example 3 – Levi’s “Go Forth” Global Advertising Campaign August 2011
Advertising Agency: Wieden & Kennedy
Created by Executive Creative Directors: Mark Fitzloff and Susan Hoffman
The above images taken from the current Levi’s “Go Forth” global advertising series for 2011. The global campaign is comprised of a series of TVC’s, print advertising and information dedicated to the campaign on a website directed from the brand website, URL: goforth.levi.com (Duncan 2011). The series combines “glimpses of hopeful Berlin youth in an effort to inspire positive engagement with the future” in an effort to keep Levi’s in the global denim market (Duncan 2011). Global advertising is extremely effective because of the literal global roll out, the media reaches every customer on a global scale. Levi’s have had great success with this campaign in terms of a stronger brand awareness and brand recall. However the negative implications of global advertising did take effect, when the campaign could not be launched in the UK at the same time as the rest of the world due to the imagery used in the series which resembled the British riots taking place at the time (Duncan 2012). This misunderstanding of the way that particular groups of consumers (different religions/nationalities/lifestyles/norms) is what leads to the breakdown in the impact of such global advertising campaigns. An example of this is the Australian tourism global advertising campaign which saw Australian personality Lara Bingle asks the viewer “Where the bloody hell are ya?” shocking viewers all around the world. A simple global roll out is sometimes ineffective due to the interpretation different consumer groups may have. A print media advertisement of this campaign has been supplied in the example below.
Example 5 – Tourism Australia global advertising campaign “Where the bloody hell are you?”
Advertising agency: created by the Sydney office of the London advertising agency M&C Saatchi
The above trade press article discusses the success of the newly launched Tourism Australia global advertising campaign. SImon Canning for The Australian writes “For the first time in several years Tourism Australia will target domestic and international audiences with the same campaign” (Canning 2012). Tourism Australia have understood the need in this day and age for a heavy focus on digital channels and so are therefore adopting such media means for the campaign roll out.
The journal article used for this category is titled Signals of global advertising appeals in emerging markets, and is taken from the International Marketing Review Journal. The journal article investigates the differences in advertising appeals relative to the emerging consumer market that has been chosen as the target audience. The findings supply a suggestion that “the advertisements from [sub-Saharan African] are homogenous in terms of the use of the cultural values underlying the conservatism dimension and heterogeneous with respect to the use of the cultural values underlying the hierarchy dimension” (Oyedele et al. 2009). This hypothesis supports the notion that global advertising in some respects is ineffective as an advertising tactic due to different cultures interpreting messages perhaps differently to the advertisers’ intent.
Canning, S 2012, ‘Aussies get global tourism ad’, Media, The Australian, 4 June, viewed 2 September 2012,
Clarke, J 2012, ‘Welfare-to-work firm is ordered to revise advert’, independent.co.uk, The Independent, 22 August, viewed 2 September 2012, <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/advertising/welfaretowork-firm-is-ordered-to-revise-advert-8070019.html>
CTV and TD Bank Announce Brand Partnership 2012, Broadcaster, Business Information Group, 13 September, viewed 13 September 2012, <http://www.broadcastermagazine.com/news/ctv-and-td-bank-announce-brand-partnership-campaign/1001694120/>
Duncan, P 2011, Levi’s Go Forth with Legacy, The Inspiration Room, viewed 2 September 2012, <http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2011/levis-go-forth-with-legacy/>
Edwards, J 2012, ‘Why Twitter’s Signup Process Is A Huge Drag On Its Ad Business’, Business Insider, 13 September, viewed 13 September 2012, <http://www.businessinsider.com/twitter-signup-is-a-drag-on-its-ad-biz-2012-9>
Ehrenberg, A, Barnard, N, Kennedy, R, Bloom, H 2002, ‘Brand Advertising as Creative Publicity’, Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 7-18, Ebscohost, viewed 3 September 2012.
Friedman, W 2012, ‘TV, Radio Ad Spend In Local Markets On Rise’, Media Daily News, MediaPost Communications, 13 September, viewed 14 September 2012, <http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/182866/tv-radio-ad-spend-in-local-markets-on-rise.html>
Hartley, SW, Patti, CH 1988, ‘Evaluating business-to-business advertising: a comparison of objectives and results’, Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 28, issue 2, pp. 21-7, Ebscohost, viewed 3 September 2012.
Khan, H, Ede, D 2009, ‘How do not-for-profit SMEs attempt to develop a strong brand in an increasingly saturated market?’, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16, issue 2, pp. 335-354, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, viewed 2 September 2012.
Kelsey, B 2012, ‘Retail Ad Spending in Local Markets to Exceed $26.8B Nationwide in 2013, According to BIA/Kelsey’s Media Ad View Reports’, Sacbee.com, The Sacramento Bee, 12 September, viewed 2 September 2012,
Nike’s Just Do It Advertising Campaign n.d., Centre for Applied Research, viewed 3 September 2012, <http://www.cfar.com/Documents/nikecmp.pdf>
Oyedele, A, Minor, MS, Ghanem, S 2009, ‘Signals of global advertising appeals in emerging markets’, International Marketing Review, vol. 26, issue4/5, pp. 521-541, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, viewed 3 September 2012.
Retail Ad Spending in Local Markets to Exceed $26.8B Nationwide in 2013 2012, BIA/Kelsey, Sacbee.com, The Sacramento Bee, 12 September, viewed 12 September 2012, <http://www.sacbee.com/2012/09/12/4812766/retail-ad-spending-in-local-markets.html>
Self, DR, Ingram, JJ, McCullin, RS, McKinney, R 1987, ‘Direct response advertising as an element in the promotional mix’, Journal of Direct Marketing’, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 50-56, Elsevier, SciVerse, viewed 3 September 2012.
Soley, LC, James, WL n.d., ‘Estimating the Readership of Retail Newspaper Advertising’, Journal of Retailing, vol. 58, issue 3, pp. 59, Ebscohost, viewed 3 September 2012.
Wells, W, Spence-Stone, R, Crawford, R, Moriarty, S, Mitchell, N 2011, Advertising: Principles & Practices, 2nd edn, Pearson, Australia.